Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the:
- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent, and a result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests means you have diabetes.
If the A1C test isn''ll need to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid at the doctor''re overweight. If the results are normal, repeat the test every three years. If the results are borderline, ask your doctor when to come back for another test.
Screening is also recommended for people who are under 45 and overweight if there are other heart disease or diabetes risk factors present, such as a sedentary lifestyle, a family for 1 last update 2020/08/05 history of type 2 diabetes, a personal history of gestational diabetes or blood pressure above 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).Screening is also recommended for people who are under 45 and overweight if there are other heart disease or diabetes risk factors present, such as a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of type 2 diabetes, a personal history of gestational diabetes or blood pressure above 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
If you''acces-list-container rc-list''s no specific diabetes diet. However, it''s OK before starting an exercise program. Choose activities you enjoy, such as walking, swimming and biking, so that you can make them part of your daily routine.
Aim for at least 30 to 60 minutes of moderate (or 15 to 30 minutes of vigorous) aerobic exercise most days of the week. A combination of exercises — aerobic exercises, such as walking or dancing on most days, combined with resistance training, such as weightlifting or yoga twice a week — offers more benefits than either type of exercise alone.
Remember that physical activity lowers blood sugar. Check your blood sugar level before any activity. You might need to eat a snack before exercising to help prevent low blood sugar if you take diabetes medications that lower your blood sugar.
It''re on insulin, multiple times a day. Ask your doctor how often he or she wants you to check your blood sugar. Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range.
Diabetes medications and insulin therapy
Some people who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, but many also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. The decision about which medications are best depends on many factors, including your blood sugar level and any other health problems you have. Your doctor might combine drugs from different classes to help you control your blood sugar in several the 1 last update 2020/08/05 different ways.combine drugs from different classes to help you control your blood sugar in several different ways.
keto foods that stop cravings tips for getting organized ☑how to keto foods that stop cravings tips for getting organized for Examples of possible treatments for type 2 diabetes include:
Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others). Generally, metformin is the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works by lowering glucose production in the liver and improving your body''t enough to control your blood sugar level, other oral or injected medications can be added.
- Sulfonylureas. These medications help your body secrete more insulin. Examples include glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol) and glimepiride (Amaryl). Possible side effects include low blood sugar and weight gain.
- Meglitinides. These medications — such as repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix) — work like sulfonylureas by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin, but they''s tissues more sensitive to insulin. These drugs have been linked to weight gain and other more-serious side effects, such as an increased risk of heart failure and anemia. Because of these risks, these medications generally aren''t cause weight gain, but may cause joint pain and increase your risk of pancreatitis.
GLP-1 receptor agonists. These injectable medications slow digestion and help lower blood sugar levels. Their use is often associated with weight loss. Possible side effects include nausea the 1 last update 2020/08/05 and an increased risk of pancreatitis.GLP-1 receptor agonists. These injectable medications slow digestion and help lower blood sugar levels. Their use is often associated with weight loss. Possible side effects include nausea and an increased risk of pancreatitis.
Exenatide (Byetta, Bydureon), liraglutide (Victoza) and semaglutide (Ozempic) are examples of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Recent research has shown that liraglutide and semaglutide may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in people at high risk of those conditions.
SGLT2 inhibitors. These drugs prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing sugar into the blood. Instead, the sugar is excreted in the urine. Examples include canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and empagliflozin (Jardiance).
Medications in this drug class may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in people with a high risk of those conditions. Side effects may include vaginal yeast infections, urinary tract infections, low blood pressure, and a higher risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. Canagliflozin, but not the other drugs in the class, has been associated with increased risk of lower limb amputation.
Insulin. Some people who have type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy. In the past, insulin therapy was used as a last resort, but today it''t be used during pregnancy.
If you have diabetic retinopathy, it may worsen during pregnancy. Visit your ophthalmologist during the first trimester of your pregnancy and at one year postpartum.
Signs of trouble
Because so many factors can affect your blood sugar, problems sometimes arise that require immediate care, such as:
- High blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Lots of things can cause your blood sugar to rise, including eating too much, being sick or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. Watch for signs and symptoms of high blood sugar — frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea — and check your blood sugar if necessary.
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). This life-threatening condition includes a blood sugar reading higher than 600 mg/dL (33.3 mmol/L). Your blood sugar meter may not provide an accurate reading at this level or it may just read "" HHNS can cause dry mouth, extreme thirst, drowsiness, confusion, dark urine and convulsions.
keto foods that stop cravings tips for getting organized ⭐️how to keto foods that stop cravings tips for getting organized for HHNS is caused by sky-high blood sugar that turns blood thick and syrupy. It tends to be more common in older people with type 2 diabetes, and it''s known as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Your blood sugar level can drop for many reasons, including skipping a meal, unintentionally taking more medication than usual or getting more physical activity than normal.
Watch for signs and symptoms of low blood sugar — sweating, shakiness, weakness, hunger, irritability, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, heart palpitations, slurred speech, drowsiness and confusion.
If you have signs or symptoms of low blood sugar, drink or eat something that will quickly raise your blood sugar level — fruit juice, glucose tablets, hard candy, regular (not diet) soda or another source of sugar. Retest your blood in 15 minutes to be sure your blood glucose levels have normalized.
If they haven''acces-list-container rc-list''t meant to replace regular physicals or routine eye exams.
Keep your vaccinations up to date. High blood sugar can weaken your immune system. Get a flu shot every year. Your doctor will likely also recommend the pneumonia vaccine.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also recommends the hepatitis B vaccination if you haven''re an adult between ages 19 and 59 with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The CDC advises vaccination as the 1 last update 2020/08/05 soon as possible after diagnosis with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If you are age 60 or older, have diabetes and haven''s right for you.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also recommends the hepatitis B vaccination if you haven''re an adult between ages 19 and 59 with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The CDC advises vaccination as soon as possible after diagnosis with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If you are age 60 or older, have diabetes and haven''s right for you.
- Take care of your teeth. Diabetes may leave you prone to more-serious gum infections. Brush and floss your teeth regularly and schedule recommended dental exams. Consult your dentist right away if your gums bleed or look red or swollen.
- Pay attention to your feet. Wash your feet daily in lukewarm water, dry them gently, especially between the toes, and moisturize them with lotion. Check your feet every day for blisters, cuts, sores, redness and swelling. Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that isn''re on insulin or other medications that lower your blood sugar, check your blood sugar before you go to sleep to make sure you''acces-list-container rc-list''t provided enough evidence to recommend any alternative therapies for blood sugar management.
If you decide to try an alternative therapy, don''t cause adverse reactions or interact with your medications.
No treatments — alternative or conventional — can cure diabetes. So it''t stop using insulin unless directed to do so by their physicians.
Coping and support
Type 2 diabetes is a serious disease, and following your diabetes treatment plan takes round-the-clock commitment. But your efforts are worthwhile because following your treatment plan can reduce your risk of complications.
Anxiety and depression are more common in people who have diabetes. Talking to a counselor or therapist may help you cope with the lifestyle changes that come with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. You may find encouragement and understanding in a type 2 diabetes support group.
Although for 1 last update 2020/08/05 support groups aren''re interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area.Although support groups aren''re interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area.
keto foods that stop cravings tips for getting organized ⭐️how to keto foods that stop cravings tips for getting organized for Or, you can visit the American Diabetes Association website to check out local activities and support groups for people with type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association also offers online information and online forums where you can chat with others who have diabetes. You can also call the organization at 800-DIABETES (800-342-2383).
Preparing for your appointment
Your primary care doctor will probably diagnose your type 2 diabetes. He or she may continue to treat your diabetes or may refer you to a doctor who specializes in hormonal disorders (endocrinologist). Your health care team also may include these specialists:
- Certified diabetes educator
- Foot doctor (podiatrist)
- Doctor who specializes in eye care (ophthalmologist)
If your blood sugar levels are very high, your doctor may send you to the hospital for treatment.
Whenever you can, it''s some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor.
What you can do
- Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. You may need to avoid eating or drinking anything but water for eight hours for a fasting glucose test or for four hours for a pre-meal test. When you''re experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to your diabetes.
- Bring a notebook and a pen or pencil (or your laptop computer or tablet) to keep track of important information.
- Write down questions to ask your doctor.
Preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time with your doctor. For type 2 diabetes, some basic questions to ask include:
- How often do I need to monitor my blood sugar, and what is my target range?
- What changes in my diet would help me manage my blood sugar?
- Should I see a dietitian to help with meal planning?
- How much exercise should I get each day?
- Do I need to take medicine or insulin shots? How often?
- Do I need to take the medicine at a particular time of the day?
- I have other medical problems. How can I best manage these conditions together?
- How will I know if I''m having trouble paying for diabetes supplies?
- Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:
- Do you understand your treatment plan and feel confident you can follow it?
- How are you coping with diabetes?
- Have you experienced any low blood sugar?
- Do you know what to do if your blood sugar is too low or too high?
- What''s diet like?
- Are you exercising? If so, what type of exercise? How often?
- Do you sit for long periods of time?
- What challenges are you experiencing in managing your diabetes?
What you can do in the meantime
If your blood sugar is consistently out of your target range, or if you''s Emergency Medicine Manual. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2018. Accessed Nov. 26, 2018.
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- Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 2nd ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/second-edition. Accessed Nov. 12, 2018. Accessed Nov. 12, 2018.
- Ueda P, et al. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and risk of serious adverse events: Nationwide register based cohort study. The BMJ. 2018;363:k4365.
- Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html. Accessed Nov. 21, 2018.
- Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Diabetes mellitus & hypoglycemia. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2019. 58th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Nov. 21, 2018.
- Natural medicines in the clinical management of diabetes. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Nov. 27, 2018.
- Healthy living with diabetes: Getting the vaccines you need. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/adults/rec-vac/health-conditions/diabetes/infographic/index.html. Accessed Nov. 21, 2018.
- Alcohol. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/making-healthy-food-choices/alcohol.html. Accessed Nov. 21, 2018.
- Castro MR (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 18, 2018.